Hybrids

DIPROTODONTIA Owen, 1866

Petauridae Bonaparte, 1838

Taxon Date Location Notes
Sugar Glider
Petaurus breviceps Waterhouse, 1839
x Squirrel Glider
Petaurus norfolcensis (Kerr, 1792)
Jan 1931 London Gray (1972) p166.

Potoroidae Gray, 1821

Taxon Date Location Notes
Brush-tailed Bettong
Bettongia penicillata Gray, 1837
x Eastern Bettong
Bettongia gaimardi (Desmarest, 1822)
Jun 1874 London Flower (1929) p362.

Macropodidae Gray, 1821

Taxon Date Location Notes
Swamp Wallaby
Wallabia bicolor (Desmarest, 1804)
x Agile Wallaby
Macropus agilis (Gould, 1842)
1968 London Gray (1972) p169. Zoological Society of London Annual Report 1968, p43 as Protemnodon bicolor x P. agilis. London 1966 dns.


PROBOSCIDEA Illiger, 1811

Elephantidae Gray, 1821

Taxon Date Location Notes
African Bush Elephant
Loxodonta africana (Blumenbach, 1797)
x Asian Elephant
Elephas maximus Linnaeus, 1758
Jul 1978 dns Chester Chester Zoo News and Guide, July 1978. The male calf was born to Jumbolino and Sheba and was named Motty. He survived for 10 days before succumbing to an infection. His body is preserved in the Natural History Museum, London.


PRIMATES Linnaeus, 1758

Lemuridae Gray, 1821

Taxon Date Location Notes
Brown Lemur
Eulemur fulvus (E. Geoffroy, 1796)
x Mongoose Lemur
Eulemur mongoz (Linnaeus, 1766)
Apr 1857 London Zuckerman in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1953, p943.
Black Lemur
Eulemur macaco (Linnaeus, 1766)
x Brown Lemur
Eulemur fulvus (E. Geoffroy, 1796)
Jun 1899 London Zuckerman in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1953, p943.
Black-and-white Ruffed Lemur
Varecia variegata (Kerr, 1792)
x Red Ruffed Lemur
Varecia rubra (E. Geoffroy, 1812)
1972* London Zoological Society of London Annual Report 1972, p12: The Ruffed Lemur birth was an important event ... because the male had been on loan from the Paris Zoo for two and a half years as a mate for a female, which had been presented to the Society in 1960 by Mr David Attenborough, following his 'Zoo Quest' to Madagascar ... Unfortunately, the mother died some six weeks later but the young one, a male, survived and has been reared successfully.

Cebidae Bonaparte, 1831

Taxon Date Location Notes
Common Marmoset
Callithrix jacchus (Linnaeus, 1758)
x Silvery Marmoset
Callithrix argentata (Linnaeus, 1771)
1932 London Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust Annual Report, No. 8 (1971), p27.
Common Marmoset
Callithrix jacchus (Linnaeus, 1758)
x Black-pencilled Marmoset
Callithrix penicillata (E. Geoffroy, 1812)
1966 Jersey International Zoo Yearbook, Vol. 8 (1968) p291.
 Pygmy Marmoset
Callithrix pygmaea (Spix, 1823)
Black-tailed Marmoset
Callithrix melanura (E. Geoffroy, 1812)
 Sep 2015North Anston (personal communication.)

Atelidae Gray, 1825

Taxon Date Location Notes
Geoffroy's Spider Monkey
Ateles geoffroyi Kuhl, 1820
x Brown Spider Monkey
Ateles hybridus I. Geoffroyi, 1829
1973 TwycrossInternational Zoo Yearbook, Vol. 15 (1975) p361, as Ateles geoffroyi. According to the latest studbook, this animal was, in fact, a hybrid (Jan Vermeer, personal communication).

Cercopithecidae Gray, 1821

Taxon Date Location Notes
Vervet
Chlorocebus pygerythrus (F. Cuvier, 1821)
x Rhesus Macaque
Macaca mulatta (Zimmermann, 1780)
Mar 1873† London Zuckerman in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1953, p942. This birth was not listed by Sclater (1883).
Green Monkey
Chlorocebus sabaeus (Linnaeus, 1766)
x Tantalus monkey
Chlorocebus tantalus (Ogilby, 1841)
1975* Chessington International Zoo Yearbook, Vol. 17 (1977) p305.
Crab-eating Macaque
Macaca fascicularis (Raffles, 1821)
x Rhesus Macaque
Macaca mulatta (Zimmermann, 1780)
July 1882*† London Flower (1929) p23.
Crab-eating Macaque
Macaca fascicularis (Raffles, 1821)
x Southern Pig-tailed Macaque
Macaca nemestrina (Linnaeus, 1766)
ca.1860† London Flower (1929) p23.
Crab-eating Macaque
Macaca fascicularis (Raffles, 1821)
x Mandrill
Mandrillus sphinx (Linnaeus, 1758)
Oct 1878*† London Flower (1929) p23.
Rhesus Macaque
Macaca mulatta (Zimmermann, 1780)
x Cherry-crowned Mangabey
Cercocebus torquatus (Kerr, 1792)
1925 Paignton Jungle Baker (1988) p53: By 1925 the Torbay and Herald Express reported Panton's enthusiasm at the birth of a healthy young monkey whose mother, Christabel, was a cherry-crowned mangabey, whilst the proud dad was a rhesus macaque, two distinct genera.
Rhesus Macaque
Macaca mulatta (Zimmermann, 1780)
x Southern Pig-tailed Macaque
Macaca nemestrina (Linnaeus, 1766)
1966 Chester International Zoo Yearbook, Vol. 8 (1968) p292.
Bonnet Macaque
Macaca radiata (E. Geoffroy, 1812)
x Rhesus Macaque
Macaca mulatta (Zimmermann, 1780)
Feb 1846 London Zuckerman in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1953, p832. This animal died May 1847.
Toque Macaque
Macaca sinica (Linnaeus, 1771)
x Bonnet Macaque
Macaca radiata (E. Geoffroy, 1812)
ca.1860*† London Flower (1929) p23.
Yellow Baboon
Papio cynocephalus (Linnaeus, 1766)
x Olive Baboon
Papio anubis (Lesson, 1827)
Aug 1969* Chessington Chessington Zoo Official Guide (undated: ca.1970) p24.
Hamadryas Baboon
Papio hamadryas (Linnaeus, 1758)
x Olive Baboon
Papio anubis (Lesson, 1827)
Pre 1951* London Gray (1972) p20.
Hanuman Langur
Semnopithecus entellus (Dufresne, 1797)
x Capped Langur
Trachypithecus pileatus (Blyth, 1843)
Apr 1912 London Four Hanuman Langurs and a pair of Capped Langurs arrived in June 1911 and this hybrid was born the following April; it lived at the zoo until its death in December 1916 (Edwards, 1996 p33).
Phayre's Langur
Trachypithecus phayrei (Blyth, 1843)
x Spectacled Langur
Trachypithecus obscurus (Reid, 1837)
1966 Twycross International Zoo Yearbook, Vol. 8 (1968) p410.

Hylobatidae Gray, 1871

Taxon Date Location Notes
Pileated Gibbon
Hylobates pileatus (Gray, 1861)
x Moloch Gibbon
Hylobates moloch (Audebert, 1798)
Jan 1956 Belle Vue International Zoo News, No. XX (Vol. XX/X, Mar 1956) p37.

Hominidae Gray, 1825

Taxon Date Location Notes
Sumatran Orang-utan
Pongo abelii Lesson, 1827
x Bornean Orang-utan
Pongo pygmaeus (Linnaeus, 1760)
Jun 1968 Chester Tim Kniveton (personal communication). This animal was named Rajang and later moved to Colchester Zoo.


CARNIVORA Bowdich, 1821

Felidae Fischer, 1817

Taxon Date Location Notes
Lion
Panthera leo (Linnaeus, 1758)
x Tiger
Panthera tigris (Linnaeus, 1758)
Pre 1788 ? Exeter Flying Post, 31 Jul 1788. This birth took place in a travelling menagerie but the owner was not named. The tigress was captive-bred in Calcutta.
Jaguar
Panthera onca (Linnaeus, 1758)
x Leopard
Panthera pardus (Linnaeus, 1758)
1890s* ? Bartlett (1900) p29: I have more than once met with instances of the male Jaguar (F. onca) breeding with a female Leopard (F. leopardus). These hybrids also were reared recently in Wombwell's well-known travelling collection.
Leopard
Panthera pardus (Linnaeus, 1758)
x Puma
Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771)
Mar 1897 ? Hagenbeck (1909) p116: A cross between a panther and a puma was undertaken at my suggestion in a certain small English menagerie. A number of young ones were born, but they all died except one, and there was nothing very noteworthy about the survivor. This was at Anderton's & Haslam's travelling menagerie. The 10-month-old cub was sold to Carl Hagenbeck for 26 guineas in Jan 1898 in Bolton, Lancashire (The Era, 15th Jan 1898).
This specimen is mounted at the Natural History Museum in Tring and is pictured in Cornish et. al. (ca.1900) p46.

Viverridae Gray, 1821

Taxon Date Location Notes
Small-spotted Genet
Genetta genetta (Linnaeus, 1758)
x Blotched Genet
Genetta tigrina (Schreber, 1776)
Oct 1859† London Flower (1929) p95.
Small-spotted Genet
Genetta genetta (Linnaeus, 1758)
x Pardine Genet
Genetta pardina I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1832
Jun 1885† London Flower (1929) p95.

Herpestidae Bonaparte, 1845

Taxon Date Location Notes
Indian Grey Mongoose
Herpestes edwardsi (E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1818)
x Egyptian Mongoose
Herpestes ichneumon (Linnaeus, 1758)
Jul 1961 Edinburgh The Royal Zoological Society of Scotland 1961 Annual Report, p22: Two hybrid mongooses (Iraqian male x Asiatic female) were born in the Reptile House. Gray (1972) p43.

Canidae Fischer, 1817

Taxon Date Location Notes
Wolf
Canis lupus Linnaeus, 1758
x Dingo
Canis lupus dingo Meyer, 1793
1841E London Flower (1929) p114.

Ursidae Fischer, 1817

Taxon Date Location Notes
American Black Bear
Ursus americanus Pallas, 1780
x Brown Bear
Ursus arctos Linnaeus, 1758
May 1859 dns London Flower (1929) p150.
Brown Bear
Ursus arctos Linnaeus, 1758
x Polar Bear
Ursus maritimus Phipps, 1774
Pre 1928E ? Jennison (1927) p123: One such animal lived fifty years, the last ten being spent in the writer's possession. This animal arrived at Belle Vue as an adult and may not have been born in this country.
Brown Bear
Ursus arctos Linnaeus, 1758
x Asian Black Bear
Ursus thibetanus G. Cuvier, 1823
Jan 1938 Chessington Irven, P. in The Bartlett Society: Journal 13 (2002) p7: It was recorded that in Janaury 1938, this female [a Brown Bear]
gave birth to her second litter of cubs ... surprisingly, the father was a Himalayan, or Asiatic, black bear!

Otariidae Gray, 1825

Taxon Date Location Notes
South African Fur Seal
Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus (Schreber, 1775)
x Californian Sealion
Zalophus californianus (Lesson, 1828)
Jun 1913 Belle Vue Keeling, C. H. in The Bartlett Society: Journal 17 (2006) p36: On 5th June 1913 a hybrid was born at Belle Vue between the Californian and Cape species and successfully reared.
Belle Vue 1911 and 1912 dns.


PERISSODACTYLA Owen, 1848

Equidae Gray, 1821

Taxon Date Location Notes
Somali Wild Ass
Equus asinus somalicus P. L. Sclater, 1885
x Chapman's Zebra
Equus burchellii chapmanni Layard, 1866
Jun 1911 London May, T. in The Bartlett Society: Journal 14 (2003) p8: A ? Somali wild ass fathered two zebra hybrids at London Zoo. The first was born on 21st June 1911 to a ? mountain zebra; the second a week later on 28th June 1911 to a ? Chapman's zebra.
Somali Wild Ass
Equus asinus somalicus P. L. Sclater, 1885
x Mountain Zebra
Equus zebra Linnaeus, 1758
Jun 1911 London See above.
Przewalski's Horse
Equus caballus przewalskii Poliakov, 1881
x Kulan
Equus hemionus kulan (Groves and Mazák, 1967)
Jun 1909 Woburn Verstraete, A. P. in The Bartlett Society Newsletter, July 1999: Sold to Rothschild for £20 1 male Mongolian Wild/Dziggetai Ass born at Woburn Estate 10.6.1909.
Syrian Wild Ass
Equus hemionus hemippus I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1855
x Somali Wild Ass
Equus asinus somalicus P. L. Sclater, 1885
Pre 1895 London Gray (1972) p101.
Quagga
Equus quagga Boddaert, 1785
x Domestic Donkey
Equus asinus Linnaeus, 1758
Apr 1830 dns Owston Park Keeling (1985) p54: On 1st April 1830 a female Quagga which had been mated to a domenstic Donkey gave birth to a foal.
Chapman's Zebra
Equus burchellii chapmanni Layard, 1866
x Mountain Zebra
Equus zebra Linnaeus, 1758
Jun 1915* London Flower (1929) p253. Gray (1972) p104.
Mountain Zebra
Equus zebra Linnaeus, 1758
x Kiang
Equus kiang Moorcroft, 1841
1830s Knowsley May, T. in The Bartlett Society: Journal 14 (2003) p8: On 6th December 1847 Lord Stanley, Earl of Derby presented London Zoo with a "common" zebra x "dshikketai" hybrid born at Knowsley. The "common" zebra was probably a mountain zebra and the "dshikketai" was more likely to have been a kiang than a true dziggetai.


ARTIODACTYLA Owen, 1848

Tayassuidae Palmer, 1897

Taxon Date Location Notes
White-lipped Peccary
Tayassu pecari (Link, 1795)
x Collared Peccary
Pecari tajacu (Linnaeus, 1758)
1864*† London Flower (1929) p337.

Camelidae Gray, 1821

Taxon Date Location Notes
Bactrian Camel
Camelus bactrianus Linnaeus, 1758
x Arabian Camel
Camelus dromedarius Linnaeus, 1758
1880* London Guide to the Gardens of the Zoological Society of London (45th ed., 1891) p29.
Alpaca
Lama glama glama (Linnaeus, 1758)
x Guanaco
Lama glama guanicoe (Müller, 1776)
ca.1843E Bristol Catalogue of the Bristol and Clifton Zoological Gardens with Short Descriptive Notices of their Organization and Habits, as well in a State of Nature as in Captivity (undated: ca.1844) p8.

Cervidae Goldfuss, 1820

Taxon Date Location Notes
Mule Deer
Odocoileus hemionus (Rafinesque, 1817)
x White-tailed Deer
Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann, 1780)
1865 London Gray (1972) p159.
Axis Deer
Axis axis (Erxleben, 1777)
x Hog Deer
Axis porcinus (Zimmermann, 1780)
Jul 1942E Whipsnade Keeling (1990) p62 (quoting the 1942 Daily Occurrences Book): The first day of July saw ... a most peculiar birth of a fawn resulting from a scandalous amour between an Axis and a Hog Deer. This is the first time I've heard of such a "cross". Hybrids between these two species were probably bred at Woburn before this date.
Axis Deer
Axis axis (Erxleben, 1777)
x European Fallow Deer
Dama dama dama (Linnaeus, 1758)
Pre 1831 ? Bennett (1831) p256.
Red Deer
Cervus elaphus Linnaeus, 1758
x Père David's Deer
Elaphurus davidianus Milne-Edwards 1866
Pre 1906 Woburn? Flower (1929) p318. This hybrid was probably born at Woburn.
Wapiti
Cervus elaphus canadensis Erxleben, 1777
x Mule Deer
Odocoileus hemionus (Rafinesque, 1817)
1865 London Gray (1972) p153 - alleged.
Sika
Cervus nippon Temminck, 1838
x Sambar
Rusa unicolor (Kerr, 1792)
Late 1890s Woburn Hastings (1949) p260.
Indian Muntjac
Muntiacus muntjak (Zimmermann, 1780)
x Reeves' Muntjac
Muntiacus reevesi (Ogilby, 1839)
ca.1850 Knowsley Keeling (2000) p65 (discussing the sale of the Knowsley collection by auction in October 1851): These Muntjac are interesting, as Lot 1 was Indian (Muntiacus muntjak), whereas the other two were "Crosses between an Indian and a Chinese species", the rarer Chinese Muntjac being M. reevesi. Interestingly, each purchase was home-bred.
Philippine Spotted Deer
Rusa alfredi Sclater, 1870
x Philippine Deer
Rusa marianna (Desmarest, 1822)
Dec 1871 London Flower (1929) p310. Philippine Deer synonym: nigricans.
Sambar
Rusa unicolor (Kerr, 1792)
x Red Deer
Cervus elaphus Linnaeus, 1758
ca.1860 Enniskerry Lever (1992) p39: Lord Powerscourt reported that he had been experimenting with the hybridisation of deer at his home at Enniskerry, Co. Wicklow in Ireland, where he had successfully mated sambar from Indonesia with native red deer.

Bovidae Gray, 1821

Taxon Date Location Notes
Slender-horned Gazelle
Gazella leptoceros (F. Cuvier, 1842)
x Goitered Gazelle
Gazella subgutturosa (Guldenstaedt, 1780)
May 1830 London Gray (1972) p136.
Goitered Gazelle
Gazella subgutturosa (Guldenstaedt, 1780)
x Blackbuck
Antilope cervicapra (Linnaeus, 1758)
1899 Dublin Peel (1903) p229.
American Bison
Bison bison (Linnaeus, 1758)
x European Bison
Bison bonasus (Linnaeus, 1758)        
 ca.1920WoburnKeeling (2016): ... the 11th Duke of Bedford crossed the two during a period just after the First World War ... and introduced American bison bulls to several of the breeding cows. The experiment was successful ...
Ankole Cattle
Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758
x American Bison
Bison bison (Linnaeus, 1758)
Sep 1962 Chessington Chessington Zoo Official Guide (undated: ca.1963) p5. Chessington 1961 dns. This animal was named Akanami.
Zebu
Bos taurus indicus Linnaeus, 1758
x Gayal
Bos frontalis Lambert, 1804
Oct 1868* London Bartlett (1900) p71: the bull Zebu (Bos indicus) was introduced to the cow Gayal (Bibos frontalis), and a female hybrid was born October 29, 1868." This female hybrid went on to breed successfully with a bull American Bison Bison bison. The resulting female calf bred with same bull bison to a produce an American Bison x (American Bison x [Zebu x Gayal]) hybrid which was described as "undistinguishable from a pure-bred Bison of the same age.
Sitatunga
Tragelaphus spekii Speke, 1863
x Bushbuck
Tragelaphus scriptus (Pallas, 1766)
ca.1900s Woburn Hastings (1949) p274.
Markhor
Capra falconeri (Wagner, 1839)
x Alpine Ibex
Capra ibex Linnaeus, 1758
1870 London Gray (1972) p129.
Markhor
Capra falconeri (Wagner, 1839)
x Nubian Ibex
Capra nubiana F. Cuvier, 1825
1864 London Gray (1972) p129.
Nubian Ibex
Capra nubiana F. Cuvier, 1825
x Cretan Wild Goat
Capra hircus aegagrus Erxleben, 1777
Feb 1885 London Flower (1929) p268.
Hybrid ibex
Capra sp.
From 1863 London Flower (1929) p268: Five (apparently all of hybrid parentage) born in the Gardens 1863-1871.
Afghan Urial
Ovis aries cycloceros Hutton, 1842
x Mouflon
Ovis aries musimon (Pallas, 1811)
May 1871* London Flower (1929) p265.
Red-flanked Duiker
Cephalophus rufilatus Gray, 1846
x Bay Duiker
Cephalophus dorsalis Gray, 1846
Jan 1869 London Gray (1972) p134.
Maxwell's Duiker
Philantomba maxwellii (C. H. Smith, 1827)
x Blue Duiker
Philantomba monticola (Thunberg, 1789)
Mar 1862 London Flower (1929) p280. Blue Duiker synonym: pygmaeus.
Scimitar-horned Oryx
Oryx dammah (Cretzschmar, 1827)
x Arabian Oryx
Oryx leucoryx (Pallas, 1777)
Jun 1936 Bristol Zoo, Aug 1936 (Vol. 1, No. 3) p44: The [Arabian] oryx was presented to the Society in 1932 by Captain Bertram Thomas ... and was mated with a much larger Sabre-Horned Oryx purchased from the London Zoo. It was found that the fawn would be too large at birth ... the Obstetric Department of the Bristol Royal Infirmary successfully performed a Caesarean operation.


RODENTIA Bowdich, 1821

Muridae Illiger, 1811

Taxon Date Location Notes
Libyan Jird
Meriones libycus Lichtenstein, 1823
x Shaw's Jird
Meriones shawi (Duvernoy, 1842)
Pre 1969 ? Gray (1972) p67.

Hystricidae Fischer, 1817

Taxon Date Location Notes
Crested Porcupine
Hystrix cristata Linnaeus, 1758
x Cape Porcupine
Hystrix africaeaustralis Peter, 1852
1918 London Gray (1972) p86.
Indian Crested Porcupine
Hystrix indica Kerr, 1792
x Crested Porcupine
Hystrix cristata Linnaeus, 1758
1967 London Gray (1972) p87.
Javan Porcupine
Hystrix javanica (F. Cuvier, 1823)
x Crested Porcupine
Hystrix cristata Linnaeus, 1758
Pre 1847 Surrey Zool. Gdns. Flower (1929) p221.

Dasyproctidae Bonaparte, 1838

Taxon Date Location Notes
Orange-rumped Agouti
Dasyprocta leporina (Linnaeus, 1758)
x Black-rumped Agouti
Dasyprocta prymnolopha Wagler, 1831
Aug 1922 London Zuckerman in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1953, p943.

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