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Zoos in general

2002. BARATAY, E. and HARDOUIN-FUGIER, E. Zoo: A History of Zoological Gardens in the West. Reaktion Books.

2001. BELL, CATHARINE E. (editor). Encyclopedia of the World's Zoos. Fitzroy Dearborn, Chicago and London. Hb. 3 volumes. 1,577 pp.
A massive three volume tour de force totalling over 1,500 pages and covering almost every aspect of zoological gardens, with contributions from nearly 300 writers. Among the more than 400 entries arranged in alphabetical order, there are detailed essays on 146 of the most famous zoos in the world. It is spoilt, however, by numerous factual errors. There is also no firm policy over what should and should not be included. There is, to give just one example at random, a whole page devoted to the King Mahendra Trust for Nature Conservation, a Nepalese organisation, but some zoo entries you would expect to find are absent. Even Whipsnade shares its write-up with London Zoo; surely the two zoos are worthy of separate entries.   


2010. BLEIMAN, ANDREW and EASTLAND, CHRIS. ZooBorns: The Cutest Baby Animals from Zoos Around the World. Constable. Hb. 160 pp.
As one can infer from the title, this is not really a book for the serious-minded zoo-goer. Based on the website ZooBorns, the book does exactly what it says, providing photographs of some of the most appealing zoo babies taken at accredited zoos from all over the world, but it's more than just a simple pictorial tome. By combining the photos with interesting animal facts both generally about the species and specifically about the individual animals featured, the book promises to be as educational as it is entertaining.
 
2013. BRAVERMAN, IRUS. Zooland: The Institution of Captivity. Stanford University Press, California. Pb. 264 pp.
A book about how zoos work, distilled from more than sixty interviews conducted by the author with zoo managers and administrators. Among other complex matters explained in an easily understood way, it describes how modern zoos obtain their animals, identify their animals, exhibit their animals, name their animals, and ultimately breed their animals. The author is American - he lives within the sounds of Buffalo Zoo - and so, as you might expect, the book is centured around American zoos. Illustrated with black and white photos.

1984. CHERFAS, JEREMY. Zoo 2000: A Look Beyond the Bars. British Broadcasting Corporation, London. Hb. 244 pp.
Where is Jeremy Cherfas now? You never hear anything of him any more. In this book, written to accompany a major BBC TV series of the same name, he examined what zoos had accomplished so far, their success stories and their failings, and, as the new millennium approached, looked ahead to the kind of institutions they might be by the year 2000. It’s about time a new series was commissioned to show how many of the prognostications aired in the original programmes, and in the book, came true. 
 
1972. CRAMMOND, JOAN. Zoo. David & Charles Ltd., Newton Abbot, Devon. Hb. 74 pp.
A rather simplistic introduction to the important functions of a modern zoo, aimed primarily at the young animal-lover. Joan Crammond was Assistant Public Relations Officer to the Zoological Society of London and, as one might expect, the work of the London Zoo is given prominence, but many other well-known zoos from around the world are discussed in brief. Illustrated with black-and-white photographs.

1964. CRANDALL, LEE S. The Management of Wild Mammals in Captivity. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London. Hb. 761 pp. (some later impressions ran to 769 pp.)
A comprehensive tome in which the author describes the record in captivity of hundreds of mammal species, comparing his own extensive experiences at the New York Zoological Park, spanning over fifty years, with the experience of zoos elsewhere, in particular the Zoological Society of London. The book was the magnificent fruition of seven years of sustained and arduous work. A little out-of-date now but still a standard refefence work.


1997. CROKE, VICKI. The Modern Ark: The Story of Zoos: Past, Present and Future. Scribner, New York. Hb. 272 pp.
The book’s concept is to trace the development of Western zoos from the animal prisons of yesteryear to the elaborate set-piece exhibits of today that try to mimic, with varying degrees of success, the animal’s natural habitat. The author admits she is an advocate for zoos and derives a great deal of enjoyment from visiting zoological gardens, but there is little evidence of her positive attitude in this book. In an attempt to be as objective as possible, she comes across as being rather a harsh critic of zoos. She would have been well advised to leave zoo history alone, as her research seems rather superficial and mistakes abound. An American journalist by profession, domiciled in Massachusetts at the time she wrote the book, she concentrates, unsurprisingly, on the zoos of the United States. British collections are not ignored, however, although one does get a suspicion she is not always writing from the advantage of having personally visited each of the zoos she describes. To give just one example, the gorilla enclosures at Howletts, whilst very good, are certainly not the 'huge football-arenas-size cages' of Ms Croke's description, but are rather more modest in size. Perhaps surprisingly for a subject that lends itself to photographic illustration, only twelve black-and-white photos accompany the text.


1961. DURRELL, GERALD. Look at Zoos. Hamish Hamilton, London. Hb. 96 pp.
A young person's guide to zoos and zoo-going. When he wrote this book, Gerald Durrell's own zoo in Jersey was already two years old, but curiously there is not one mention of Jersey Zoo in the text. Drawings by Pat Marriott.


1966. FISHER, JAMES. Zoos of the World. Aidus Books, Ltd., London. Hb. 253 pp.
James Fisher was a broadcaster, author, zoologist and ornithologist, and in 1966 he penned what is still regarded by many to be one of the best books of its kind and a standard reference work for many years. Dated now, but still a wealth of knowledge of how zoos used to operate. Contains an appendix listing all the world’s zoos and aquaria known to the author at the time of writing, a total of 526 institutions. ‘But it is possible that I may have missed a zoo or two,’ he adds, apologetically.

2010. FRENCH, THOMAS. Zoo Story. Life in the Garden of Captive. Hiperion, New York. Hb. 288 pp. KK.

2011. FROST, WARWICK (Ed.). Zoos and Tourism: Conservation, Education, Entertainment? Channel View Publications. Pb. 262 pp.
Zoos must serve two masters that not infrequently conflict to pull them in different directions. Providing a good day out for the general public is often at loggerheads zoos' avowed mission to breed endangered species. The visitors not unnaturally wish to see the animals, having paid good money to do so, but the animal may prefer to remain out of sight. To breed successfully, some animals may need complete seclusion, perhaps even to the extent of being moved off-view. It's the eternal dilemma every modern zoo must face. To what extent do zoo managers sacrifice their lofty ideals to give the public value for money? is the question posed by this insightful book. Mainly text, but with a few black and white photos.
 
BOO1967. HAHN, EMILY. Zoos. Secker & Warburg, Ltd., London. Hb. 374 pp.
A personal account based on a tour of the major zoos of Britain, France, Holland, Italy, Belgium, Germany, Russia, Australia, India, Ceylon (as it still was), Japan, and the U.S.A. including interviews with notable zoo directors or their deputy. She also discusses the history of zoos, the problem of public feeding of the animals, hybridisation of zoo animals, the role of animal dealers, and the case for conservation and captive breeding. A classic in its day. Illustrated with nearly forty black-and-white photographs. Foreword by Sir Solly Zuckerman.


1971. HANCOCKS, DAVID. Animals and Architecture.

1950. HEDIGER, H. Wild Animals in Captivity: An Outline of the Biology of Zoological Gardens. Many editions.
1950 saw the first publication in English of this classic book, originally published in German under the title Wildtiere in Gefangenschaft – Ein Grundriss der Tiergartenbiologie by Benno Schwabe & Co. , Basle, Switzerland. of an English  Dr. Heini Hediger, as director of the Zurich Zoological Gardens from 1954 to 1973, was an influential figure in the zoo world, carving a name for himself as the founder of the principles of zoo biology and one of the world’s foremost authorities on zoos. Aware that much of the data concerning the physical and psychological needs of zoo animals was either scattered in technical journals or was unpublished, he gathered together information based upon experiment and observation with a view to making it available to a larger audience. What was urgently needed, he felt, was a reference book that could be as easily understood by the interested layperson as by the academic. The result was Wild Animals in Captivity, in which  he expounds upon his ideas, covering such diverse topics as territory and space, escapes of zoo animals, social relationships, range, food presentation, breeding, and relationship to man. 

1996. HOAGE, R.J. and DEISS, WILLIAM A. (Eds.). New Worlds, New Animals: From Menagerie to Zoological Park in the Nineteenth Century. John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore and London. Pb. 198 pp.

2009. HOSEY, GEOFF and MELFI, VICKY and PANKHURST, SHEILA. Zoo Animals: Behaviour, Management, and Welfare. Oxford University Press, Oxford. Pb. 544 pp.
Not the wholly unique book the publishers claim it to be (the subject matter is not exactly unexplored by other authors), it is nonetheless an indispensable, well-researched tome that should be on the bookshelves of every zoo professional and in every zoo library. I did, for example, find in its pages the answer to a question I have been puzzling over for a very long time: how many people, worldwide, visit zoos annually? Not an easy question to answer, given the lamentably large number of unregistered zoos, particularly in developing countries. The answer, according to this book, is approximately 700 million. Nowhere else have I found that sort of information. Other subjects covered include zoo traditions, feeding and nutrition, housing and husbandry, captive breeding, animal welfare, animal identification, environmental enrichment, and record keeping. A chapter about human and animal interaction in zoos shows what impact visitors can have on captive animals' behaviour and welfare. Well illustrated with black/white photos and tables. As befits a major work of this kind, includes a comprehensive list of references and a helpful glossary of zoological and biological terms. A second, revised, edition (643 pp.) was published in 2013.
  
1996. JASCHINSKI, BRITTA. Zoo. Phaidon Press Ltd. Hb. 84 pp.
A portfolio of work  by photographer Britta Jaschinski. The photographs are dark, intentionally haunting, artful rather than illustrative, capturing a fragmentary glance of the animal, whether a paw gripping an iron bar or a dolphin below the surface of a pool.
 
1986. JENKINS, SID and BERRIFF, PAUL. Animal Squad. British Broadcasting Corporation, London.

1994. KEELING, C.H. One Man and His Animals. Clam Publications, Guildford, Surrey. Pb. 71 pp.
In the middle of the twentieth century there were just fourteen zoological gardens in Great Britain and this book examines the education services provided by these various institutions, and asks why the zoos of the time did not take public education more seriously. It is also largely autobiographical in that Clinton Keeling expounds on what he tried to achieve at the Ashover Zoological Garden, created for no other purpose than as an educational resource.


2016. KEELING, C.H. Ligers, Tigons and Other Hybrid Mammals: A Summation and Critical Appraisal of Mammalian Hybrids. The Bartlett Society. Hb. 139 pp.
In this book, published posthumously, the renowned zoologist, prolific writer and lecturer, Clinton Keeling, discusses, in his own inimitable and lively style, the often controversial subject of mammal hybridization, focusing on such hybrids born and raised in captivity, in zoos and travelling menageries around the world. The original typescript was found among the author's possessions when he died and the decision was made by his friends to publish. Updated to take account of changes in taxonomy, with the addition of a table of first and early breeding records for mammal hybrids in captivity in the U.K. and Ireland, this book provides an essential introduction to a fascinating subject. Today, responsible zoos concern themselves, quite rightly, with the preservation of pure-bred animals, but it wasn't very long ago when crossbreds between two or more species were commonplace. Sometimes these hybrids were produced by accident, the result of unplanned matings, and at other times intentionally. Many are quite surprising. Edited by Russell Tofts. Illustrated with both colour and black & white photos.

1968. KIRCHSHOFER, ROSL (editor). The World of Zoos: A Survey and Gazetteer. Batsford.

1996. KLEIMAN, DEVRA G., ALLEN, MARY E., THOMPSON, KATERINA V. AND LUMPKIN, SUSAN (editors). Wild Mammals in Captivity: Principles and Techniques. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London. Pb. 639 pp.
A scholarly volume of nearly 640 pages, ten years in the execution, intended as the belated follow-up to Lee Crandall's classic 1964 tome The Management of Wild Mammals in Captivity by the same publishers. It's good, but does not quite live up to the original.

2002. LaRUE, MICHAEL D. This Place is a Zoo: How to Manage the Unmanageable Organization. Writer's Showcase, San Jose, California. KK.

2012. PENN, LAURA, GUSSET, MARKUS AND DICK, GERALD. 77 Years: The History and Evolution of the World Association of Zoos and Aquariums 1935 - 2012. World Association of Zoos and Aquariums (WAZA), Switzerland. Pb. 200 pp.
Personally I would have waited three more years and brought the book out on the 80th anniversary. Seventy-seven years seems a bit too arbitrary. That said, I do wish there were more books like this about the history and development of zoological and conservation organisations (perhaps, in years to come, someone might care to write one on the Bartlett Society!). The best description I can give is to quote from the publisher's blurb on the back cover: "Based on material from WAZA's extensive archives, which date back to the 1930s, the book tells the story of how the organisation has developed from a simple international network of zoo directors to a true force for wildlife conservation. This book is a landmark publication in that it brings previously buried archival information to life. It is a valuable contribution to the collection of publications that deal with zoos as a main focus because it gives a unique inside look into how principal members and institutions of the zoo community in the 20th century have helped shape zoos and aquariums into what they are today." It's a neat, compact book, divided into four chapters ("The World Asociation of Zoos and Aquariums in an Evolving World", "Changing Times, Changing Organisational Structure", "The World Association of Zoos and Aquariums' Commitment to Conservation", "The Evolving Role of the Zoo"), further divided into short sections ideal for just "dipping into" at odd moments, followed by no fewer than seven appendices. One might expect a book of this kind to be dry, but it is not; it is concise and eminently readable and the only thing that slightly lets it down is the cover, which, with its rough sketches of tiger, rhino, gorilla, and other animals against a pastel background, could have been more vibrant and dynamic. Illustrated with numerous black-and-white photos.
 
1969. PERRY, JOHN. The World's a Zoo.

2011. REES, PAUL A. An Introduction to Zoo Biology and Management. Wiley-Blackwell (Publishers). Pb. 432 pp.
A comprehensive introductory text for students studying a wide range of courses concerned with animal management, zoo biology and wildlife conservation, but zookeepers and other zoo professionals can also gain a lot from reading it. It is divided into three parts. Part 1 considers the function of zoos, their history, how zoos are managed, ethics, zoo legislation, and wildlife conservation law. Part 2 discusses the design of zoos and zoo architecture, animal nutrition, reproduction, animal behaviour (including enrichment and training), animal welfare, veterinary care, animal handling and transportation. Part 3 looks at captive breeding programmes, genetics, population biology, record keeping, the educational role of zoos, and visitor behaviour. It concludes with a discussion of the role of zoos in the conservation of species in the wild and in species reintroductions. This book takes an international perspective and includes a great many examples of how zoos are operated in the U.K. and the rest of Europe, North America and Australasia.
  
1998. SHEPHERDSON, DAVID J., MELLEN, JILL D., and HUTCHINS, MICHAEL (editors). Second Nature: Environmental Enrichment for Captive Animals. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington and London. Pb. 376 pp.
A paperback reissue of a book originally bound in cloth. A total of thirty-eight contributors discuss the various ingenious methods in use in zoological gardens to address animals' psychological needs. A useful book, albeit one intended more for the zoo professional or academic than the average zoo visitor. Short on illustrations. Just two monochrome photographs (showing social grooming between macaques) seem almost arbitrarily chosen. Foreword by Terry Maple.

2011. SHERIDAN, ANTHONY. What Zoos Can Do: The Leading Zoological Gardens of Europe 2010-2020. Pb. 388 pp. English and German editions.
Analyses 80 leading zoological gardens in 21 European countries. The 19 chapters discuss such topics as the role of the zoo director, landscaping and design, education, ex-situ and in-situ conservation, marketing and commercial operations, zoo transformations, visitor numbers, the most popular mammalian species, the largest collections, national and regional zoo associations, and looks ahead to what zoos may be like by the year 2020. The author is making no money out of the sale of this book (indeed, it has cost him a lot of money to research and travel to many of the zoos featured) as all profits from the sale of the book are being donated to "Stiftung Artenschutz", a German conservation organisation, based at Munster Zoo, for a new project in Vietnam for the conservation of the Yellow-cheeked Crested Gibbon (Nomascus gabriellae). A 64-page updated supplement, intended to be read in conjunction with the original book, was published in 2013 and, among other features, includes 12 additional zoos, most from eastern European countries.
 
2008. SIMONS, JOHN. Rossetti's Wombat. Middlesex University Press. Pb. 142 pp. Illustrated (b/w photos).

1982. STANDRING, GILLIAN. The Zoo Book. Macdonald & Co. Ltd., London. Hb. 61 pp.
A young person’s introduction to zoos, illustrated with colour photos and sketches, prepared with the assistance of the Zoological Society of London.

1965. STREET, PHILIP. Animals in Captivity. Faber & Faber, London. Hb. 231 pp.
A good overview of zoo-keeping methods and the problems encountered in keeping and breeding animals in captivity. Early chapters recount the careers of some of the more notable zoological pioneers of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

1838. SWAINSON, WILLIAM. Animals in Menageries.
A rather misleading title as relatively little of the text concerns captive animals. Swainson was a Liverpool-born naturalist and bird illustrator par excellence. He is commemorated in the vernacular names of at least seventeen bird species.

1876. TAYLOR, J.E. The Aquarium: Its Inhabitants, Structure and Management. 316 pp.
The Victorians were the pioneers of the public aquarium, and this comprehensive tome is one of the earliest books examining this new fascination for things aquatic. If you are lucky enough to spot a copy in an antiquarian bookshop, get it.

2012. TOFTS, RUSSELL. Animals in the Blood: The Ken Smith Story. The Bartlett Society. Hb. 234 pp.
This is a biography of Gerald Durrell's right-hand man. A good all-round zoologist, Kenneth Smith led a very full and varied life - as a zoo-keeper, animal dealer, zoo superintendent, family man, and zoo-owner. During his lifetime he was well known within the zoological fraternity but, being a very private man, his reputation never extended beyond that tightly knit circle. This book tells his life's story for the first time and was written to ensure the name 'Ken Smith' will still mean something to future scholars of zoology. Provides much information on Oxford Zoo (where he started his animal career), and the zoos at Whipsnade, Glasgow (Calderpark), Paignton, Jersey (which he helped run with Gerald Durrell for the first four years), Exmouth (the first zoo he could call his own), Poole, and Shaldon, among others. Over 80 photographs, most of them published here for the first time.
  
2003. YOUNG, ROBERT J. Environmental Enrichment for Captive Animals (UFAW Animal Welfare). Wiley-Blackwell (Publishers). Pb. 240 pp.
A timely book on a vast and very important subject that should be in the library or main office of every zoo.
 
1980. ZUCKERMAN, LORD SOLLY (editor). Great Zoos of the World: Their Origins and Significance. Weidenfeld and Nicolson, Ltd., London.
In-depth profiles of some of the most influential zoos in the world with an emphasis on the history of each institution. Of the thirty collections discussed at length, thirteen are found in continental Europe, seven in the United States of America, one each in Australia, Japan, South Africa, China, Canada and Singapore, and only four in Britain (London, Whipsnade, Jersey, and the Slimbridge Wildfowl Trust).

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